Did the laity control worship at church altars outside the main choir in Ghent in the century before the Reformation? How can these lay liturgies be categorized? Were they always votive? In this presentation, I explore the liturgies of a variety of lay foundations and the extent to which they were personal, private, communal, or of political consequence. I argue for a different understanding of late-medieval liturgy, one that is mindful of those physically present or not and their role, and of such events as bread distributions, or essential objects, including paintings.
Presented as part of the ISM Liturgy Symposium series. Cláudio Carvalhaes, theologian, liturgist and artist, a native Brazilian, is Associate Professor of Worship at Union Theological Seminary in New York City.