The Spirit in Worship and Worship in the Spirit

Event time: 
Thursday, February 21, 2008 - 9:00am
Event description: 

Conference, February 21st through 23rd, 2008

In recent decades there has appeared to be a sharp divide between the liturgical traditions of the older classical and Reformation Churches on the one hand, and the worship of the newer Pentecostal and charismatic churches on the other, with the latter emphasizing that they worship “in the Spirit.”  Scholars and practitioners representing both sides of this apparent divide come together to explore the place and understanding of the Holy Spirit in their respective worship traditions.


 

Speakers:

Dan Albrecht, Assemblies of God, California: In the Spirit – Transmuting Worship Patterns, Attitudes and Convictions Pentecostally.

Teresa Berger, Yale University: Veni Creator Spiritus – The Elusive Real Presence of the Spirit in the Catholic Tradition

Paul Bradshaw, University of Notre Dame: The Rediscovery of the Holy Spirit in Modern Eucharistic Theology and Practice.

Simon Chan, Trinity Theological College, Singapore: The Liturgy as the Work of the Spirit.

Melva Costen, Atlanta, Georgia: The Spirit and African American Worship Traditions.

Jonathan Draper, South Africa: The Holy Spirit in the Worship of the Independent African Churches.

Peter Galadza, University of Ottawa: The Holy Spirit in Eastern Orthodox Worship: Credal Potential, Historical Enfleshments, and Modern Challenges

Max Johnson, Notre Dame University: The Holy Spirit and Lutheran Worship.

Ruth Langer, Boston College: The Presence of God in Jewish Liturgy.

Simon Jones, Merton College, Oxford: Wombs of the Spirit: Incarnational pneumatology in the Syrian baptismal tradition.

Habte Kidane, Ethiopia: The Holy Spirit in the Ethiopian Orthodox Worship Tradition.

James Steven, Bristol UK: The Spirit in Charismatic Worship.

The Rt. Rev. Dr. N. T. Wright, Durham UK:  The Spirit and Worship in the New Testament.

Darlene Zschech, Hillsong, Australia: The Spirit in Worship and the Making of Music in the Hillsong Churches.

 


 

Organizer: Bryan D. Spinks (Yale Institute of Sacred Music and Yale Divinity School)

Conference Location:

The conference will be held at the Institute of Sacred Music which is located within the Sterling Divinity Quadrangle at Yale.  
 

Institute of Sacred Music 
409 Prospect Street

New Haven, CT 06511

 


Schedule:

 

Thursday February 21

9:00 am

Bus service begins from downtown hotels* to conference (last bus departs at 10:00 am)

9:30 am

Registration SDQ main entrance.

10:30 am

Welcome and opening remarks.

10:45 am

First Session: The Spirit and Worship in the New Testament. N.T.Wright

11:45 am

Box Lunch

1:30 pm

Second Session: Wombs of the Spirit: Incarnational pneumatology in the Syrian baptismal tradition.  Simon Jones

2:30 pm

Third Session: The Holy Spirit in Eastern Orthodox Worship: Credal Potential, Historical Enfleshments, and Modern Challenges. Peter Galadza

3:30 pm

Coffee and Tea Break with book/CD display Sarah Smith Gallery.

4:00 pm

Fourth Session: Veni Creator Spiritus – The Elusive Real Presence of the Spirit in the Catholic Tradition. Teresa Berger

5:00 pm

Beginning of bus service to downtown hotels*.

Friday February 22

8:30 am

Bus service from hotels to ISM (last bus at 9:20 am)

9:00 am

Coffee and Pastries

9:30 am

First Session: The Presence of God in Jewish Liturgy. Ruth Langer

10:30 am

Coffee and Tea Break

10:45 am

Second Session: The Spirit in Worship and the Making of Music in the Hillsong Churches. Darlene Zschech

11:45 am

Box Lunch

1:30 pm

Third Session: The Rediscovery of the Holy Spirit in Modern Eucharistic Theology and Practice. Paul Bradshaw

2:30 pm

Fourth Session: The Holy Spirit and Lutheran Worship. Maxwell Johnson

3:30 pm

Coffee and Tea Break

4:00 pm

Fifth Session: The Spirit and African American Worship Traditions. Melva Costen

5:00 pm

Beginning of bus service to downtown hotels*.  Depart for Banquet**.

Saturday February 23

8:30 am

Bus Service from hotels to ISM (last bus departs at 9:20 am)

9:00 am

Coffee and Pastries

9:30 am

First Session: The Spirit in Charismatic Worship. James Steven

10:30 am

Coffee and Tea Break

10:45 am

Second Session: In the Spirit – Transmuting Worship Patterns, Attitudes and Convictions Pentecostally. Dan Albrecht

11:45 am

Box Lunch

1:30 pm

Third Session: The Holy Spirit in Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahdo Church. Habte Kidane

2:30 pm

Fourth Session: The Holy Spirit in the Worship of the Independent African Churches. Jonathan Draper

3:30 pm

Coffee and Tea Break.

4:00 pm Fifth Session: The Liturgy as the Work of the Spirit. Simon Chan

5:00 pm

Closing remarks

5:30 pm

Beginning of bus service to downtown hotels*.


Speaker Biographies:

Daniel Albrecht is Professor of Spirituality and Christian History. He is a member of the Theological Studies faculty at Bethany University. With undergraduate and graduate degrees in Biblical Studies, Historical Theology and Educational Psychology, Albrecht received his Ph.D. from Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley in the area of History and Phenomenology of Religions, with emphasis on Christian Spirituality. Albrecht enjoys teaching and university life in general. His teaching interests include various histories of Christian Spirituality, Gelpian theology, Developmental Spirituality and Church History. His current scholarly work focuses on the intersection of human development and experience and spiritual experience and development. His recent publications focus on Pentecostal Worship including, Rites in the Spirit: A Ritual Approach to Pentecostal/Charismatic Spirituality. He is married and the Albrechts have two grown children.

 

Teresa Berger is Professor of Liturgical Studies at Yale. She is a Roman Catholic (with experience in the charismatic movement), and holds doctorates in both dogmatic theology and in liturgical studies. Her scholarly interests lie at the intersection of liturgical studies, theology, gender theory, and cultural studies. Berger has written extensively on liturgy and women’s lives. Her recent publications include Women’s Ways of Worship: Gender Analysis and Liturgical History (1999), Dissident Daughters: Feminist Liturgies in Global Context (2001), and Fragments of Real Presence (2005). In 2007, she co-produced, with FireStream Media, a documentary video of “liturgies in women’s hands” as they have been celebrated in her parish. Berger’s current scholarly work focuses on an editorial project designed to bring to light the many ways in which gender has shaped what comes to be known as the Liturgical Tradition.

Paul Bradshaw received his B.A. and M.A. in theology from the University of Cambridge (1966, 1970), his Ph.D. in liturgical studies from the University of London (1971), and in 1994 was awarded the degree of Doctor of Divinity by the University of Oxford for his published works. Ordained in the Church of England, after holding several positions there he has taught in the Theology Department at Notre Dame since 1985, and continues to hold the rank of Professor of Liturgy. However, from1995 until the present he has spent most of his time in the UK, serving as Director of Notre Dame’s London Undergraduate Program. He has published extensively on the subject of Christian liturgy, having written or edited more than 20 books, together with over 90 essays or articles in periodicals. From 1987 to 2005 he was editor-in-chief of the scholarly journal Studia Liturgica.
Simon Chan is Earnest Lau Professor of Systematic Theology at Trinity Theological College in Singapore. His special interest is in the relationship between dogmatics, spirituality and the liturgy from a global pentecostal perspective. He is an ordained minister of the Assemblies of God of Singapore. His recent publications include Liturgical Theology: The Church as Worshipping Community (IVP, 2006).
Melva Wilson Costen, Visiting Professor of Liturgical Studies at the Yale Institute of Sacred Music, Fall, 2005, retired as Helmar Emil Nielsen Professor of Worship and Music, after thirty-two years at Interdenominational Theological Center, Atlanta GA, in July, 2005. Prior to this tenure, she served for twenty years as music teacher and organist/choir director in North Carolina and Georgia. She earned the B.A. degree at Johnson C. Smith University, Charlotte, NC; the Master of Arts in Teaching Music degree at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; and the Ph.D. at Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. She holds two Doctor of Humane Letters honorary degrees, and is an Elder in the Presbyterian Church (USA).
Jonathan Draper is a Professor of Theology at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Peter Galadza is Kule Family Professor of Liturgy at the Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies in the Faculty of Theology, Saint Paul University, Ottawa, Canada, and a member of the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research at the University of Ottawa.

Among his publications are: The Theology and Liturgical Work of Andrei Sheptytsky, OCAnalecta 272, Rome, 2004; The Divine Liturgy: An Anthology for Worship, Ottawa, 2004; and Unité en division: Les lettres de Lev Gillet (“Un moine de l’Eglise d’Orient”) à Andrei Cheptytsky – 1921-1929, Parole et Silence, 2007.

In 2003-2004 he was a research fellow at Harvard University’s Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Research Center in Georgetown, Washington, DC.

Between 1994 and 2005 he was editor of Logos: A Journal of Eastern Christian Studies.

During the 1999-2000 academic year, Fr. Galadza served as dean of the L’viv Theological Academy in Ukraine (since 2002, The Ukrainian Catholic University), for which he was awarded the jeweled pectoral cross by Cardinal Lubomyr Husar.

He earned his Ph.D. in theology from the University of Saint Michael’s College in the University of Toronto in 1994.

Maxwell E. Johnson is professor of liturgical studies in the Department of Theology at the University of Notre Dame and a pastor in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. He is a graduate of Augustana College, Sioux Falls, South Dakota (BA), Wartburg Theological Seminary (MDiv.), Saint John’s School of Theology, Collegeville, MN (MA), and the University of Notre Dame (Ma, PhD). Widely published in the field of liturgical studies and a frequent presenter to diverse audiences, Johnson’s specific interests include the rites of Christian Initiation, the feasts and seasons of the Liturgical Year, Christian Liturgy in the first centuries of Christianity, as well as contemporary liturgical-ecumenical issues.
Professor Ruth Langer is Associate Professor of Jewish Studies and 
Academic Director, Center for Christian-Jewish Learning at Boston College. She is the editor of Liturgy in the Life of the Synagogue: Studies in the History of Jewish Prayer, along with Steven Fine (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2005).

The Reverend Dr. Simon Jones is Chaplain and Research Fellow at Merton College, Oxford. He teaches liturgy in the Theology Faculty of the University of Oxford and at St Stephen’s House, Oxford. His doctoral dissertation investigated the liturgical implications of the doctrine of the Spirit for the Syrian baptismal tradition. More recently, he has written the introduction to the 60th anniversary edition of Gregory Dix’s, The Shape of the Liturgy and edited a collection of some of Dix’s unpublished works.

Habtemicahel Kidane was born in 1953 in Eritrea. He received his Ph.D. in Oriental Liturgy from the Pontifical Oriental Institute in Rome in 1990 in a dissertation on the Liturgy of the Hours in the Ethiopian Orthodox Rite. Habtemichael’s major publications include: “L’Ufficio divino della Chiesa etiopica”, Orientalia Christiana Analecta 257 (Rome 1998).

His most recent publication includes: “Origin and Development of the Ge’ez divine liturgy” (in Tegregna, language widely spoken in Northern Ethiopia and Eritrea), (Asmara 2005). From these two books arose the plane to prepare the “Bibliografia della Liturgia Ge’ez”, which is under press at Orientalia Christiana Analecta (Rome). He is the author of several articles and entries. He recently prepared an essay: “Origine ed evoluzione della “Liturgia Ge’ez”, presented at the first International Congress for the Society of Oriental Liturgy, held at the Eichstätt (Germany) under press at the Bollettino della Badia Greca di Grattaferrata. He contributes in several encyclopaedic dictionaries and participates in international symposia.

At the present he is preparing a book on the First part of the Divine Liturgy (Ùér’ata Qéddase) and Eucharistic prayers (Akwäteta Qwerban) of the Ethiopic-Eritrean Liturgical Tradition. Habtemichael at the present contributes to the Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Hamburg. He is currently working with the Episcopal Committees for Liturgy of Eritrea and Ethiopia in preparing the Ethiopian Rite Missal for the use of the two Catholic Churches of Ge’ez Rite (Ethiopia and Eritrea).

James Steven is Tutor in Worship and Doctrine at Trinity College Bristol in the U.K. where he has taught since 2000. After a Natural Science degree in Cambridge he studied Theology in Durham (BA), was ordained in 1987 and completed a PhD at King’s College London whilst in parish and chaplaincy posts. His research thesis was published in 2002 as Worship in the Spirit: Charismatic Worship in the Church of England (Paternoster). He is membership secretary of the British Society of Liturgical Studies and member of the editorial board for the Grove Book worship series.

Bishop Tom Wright, a native of Northumberland, read Greats and Theology at Oxford and obtained his D. Phil for a thesis on St Paul and his D. D. for books on the New Testament and, in particular, Jesus in his historical context. He taught New Testament studies in Cambridge, McGill and Oxford Universities, and worked as a College Chaplain, before becoming Dean of Lichfield in 1994, Canon of Westminster in 2000 and Bishop of Durham in 2003. Dr Wright has written over 40 books and hundreds of articles at both scholarly and popular levels, and has broadcast frequently on radio and TV. He is married with four children and two grandchildren, and lists music, poetry, hill-walking and golf among his recreations.

Australian Darlene Zschech is acclaimed all over the world as a singer, songwriter, worship leader and speaker, most notably for spearheading the music that comes from Hillsong Church. Although she has achieved numerous gold albums and her songs are sung in many nations of the world, her success is not the result of pursuing stardom and fame—it stands as a testimony to her life’s passion to serve God and people with all her heart.


Paper Abstracts:

Dan Albrecht, Assemblies of God, California: In the Spirit – Transmuting Worship Patterns, Attitudes and Convictions Pentecostally.

The paper will explore and seek to understand worship in the Spirit from a Pentecostal perspective. A fourfold consideration will unfold within the presentation: (i) we will begin with a retrospective, an historical look at sources of Pentecostal worship, dynamic interplay and merging of streams from the traditions that flowed into the emerging Pentecostal movement, and the transmutation of the characteristics of these streams within the context of Pentecostal worship; (ii) second, the paper will identify rites or typical fundamental structures and patterns of ritual act(ion)s; (iii) we will then explore the sensibilities or embodied attitudes that orient and animate the Pentecostal ways of worship and at their best open Pentecostal worshippers to the Spirit’s Breath and direction; (iv) fourth, we seek to uncover the foundational convictions, presuppositions, and/or values that support and give rise to Pentecostal ways, spirituality and worship. Our paper will conclude with an inside out view of some insights from worshipping in the Spirit Pentecostally.

Teresa Berger, Yale University: Veni Creator Spiritus – The Elusive Real Presence of the Spirit in the Catholic Tradition

I begin my presentation with a tension, namely between the witness to the workings of the Holy Spirit in, for example, the ninth-century Veni Creator Spiritus, and the commonly held notion of the Western tradition as forgetful of the third person of the Holy Trinity. This tension will provide the guiding question I explore in my presentation. I will suggest that, in answering the question about the Spirit’s real presence and/or perceived absence in the Catholic tradition, much depends on what one allows to count as evidence. If, for example, the evidence comes to be narrowly confined to the question of a consecratory Spirit-epiclesis in the Eucharistic Prayer, then the Catholic tradition does seem forgetful of the Holy Spirit. [Such a focus is encouraged of course by comparison with the Eastern tradition, which makes the Latin counterpart look deficient on that point]. Likewise, if the crucial marker for the Spirit’s presence is located in the charism of speaking in tongues, most catholic liturgies will also seem lacking. If, however, one started with the Veni Creator Spiritus, or the Blessing over Baptismal Waters, or the twelfth-century liturgical exposition of Rupert von Deutz in order to chart the Spirit’s presence, then a quite different picture of the Catholic tradition emerges. This, in fact, is what I propose to develop in my presentation.

 

Paul Bradshaw, University of Notre Dame: The Rediscovery of the Holy Spirit in Modern Eucharistic Theology and Practice.

This paper traces the gradual growth of interest in the restoration of a form of epiclesis to the eucharistic rites of a number of Western churches during the course of the twentieth century. It seeks to establish why this was so in the light of the relatively low level of interest in pneumatology in general, and in the Holy Spirit’s role in worship in particular, in theological discourse for much of that time. It ends with a consideration of some more recent contributions to the nature of the Spirit’s relationship to the eucharist, and points to areas of unfinished business in that regard.

 

Simon Chan, Trinity Theological College, Singapore: The Liturgy as the Work of the Spirit.

 

From ancient times, pneumatology and ecclesiology have always been seen as belonging together. This close connection is best captured in the identification of the liturgy, i.e., “the work of the people” as the work of the Spirit. But in what sense is the liturgy the work of the Spirit? This paper examines the question by first showing that within the Trinitarian economy the Holy Spirit bears a special relationship to the church which is reflected in the paradoxical nature of the liturgy. Second, the way to make sense of this paradox is the doctrine of synergy which culminates in the epiclesis. Synergy also calls for the “active participation” of worshippers.

 

Melva Costen, Atlanta, Georgia: The Spirit and African American Worship Traditions.

 

 

African American Christians gathered for worship, share a variety of common beliefs and resulting ritual practices that are considered to be “empowered by the Spirit.” It cannot be assumed, however, that all worship gatherings can be perceived as a unified occurrence, transferable from one place to another in order for liturgical actions to be considered typically “valid,” “bone fide” or universally reflective of the evidence of Spirit-filled worship.

This presentation will begin with a clarification of commonalities that, under the power of the Holy Spirit, have empowered and helped connect worshipers within and beyond denominations across the centuries. This will be followed by some of the characteristics within worship traditions that are reminders of the divine gift of “differences” and the importance of “uniqueness” as bonds that hold communities together.

An overview of spirit-filled worship in African American denominations and separate African American congregations, initiated and shaped in the 18,th 19th and early 20th century worship in America, will follow. Theological perspectives of spirit, and Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost conceptualized initially within the context of African spirituality and continued in the American Diaspora, will be discussed and applied to liturgical actions in African American worship traditions. Ever-evolving ritual practices, especially prevalent in congregational songs, burst out of African American worshiping spaces and are propelled into the world. A brief examination of new musical forms created by local and global encounters, a return to worship to be reworked and sent-forth again into the world, attests to the spiritual metamorphosis that is initiated in the context of African American spirit-filled worship.

Jonathan Draper, South Africa: The Holy Spirit in the Worship of the Independent African Churches.

Holy Spirit is the fundamental concept in the life and worship of those African Independent Churches often called Zionist. It draws on an underlying holistic understanding of the nature and power of the numinous in African culture in a creative new indigenous expression of Christian faith. Drawing on both historical and field data this paper affirms the positive valuation given to these expressions in the work of recent scholars such as Allan Anderson, but also calls into question attempts to homogenize them with more traditional Pentecostalism. The overlap between angels, ancestors, spirits and Spirit is more significant and fluid than Anderson allows.

Peter Galadza, University of Ottawa: The Holy Spirit in Eastern Orthodox Worship: Credal Potential, Historical Enfleshments, and Modern Challenges

Eastern Orthodox worship is frequently described as strongly pneumatic - at least as compared with certain other Christian traditions. This paper will examine the veracity of this assertion by exploring key aspects of Byzantine liturgy, both historically and from the perspective of modern theology and practice. The categories: i) theology of worship, ii) theology from worship, iii) liturgical theology in the conventional sense, and iv) liturgical theology as understood by David Fagerberg will be employed to organize the analysis. The paper will also reflect on how Western modernity and post-modernity provide challenges and opportunities for Eastern Christians hoping to worship in spirit and truth.

 

Max Johnson, Notre Dame University: The Holy Spirit and Lutheran Worship.

 

Lutheran theology has always considered Word and Sacrament to be the tools by which “the Holy Spirit produces faith in those who hear the Gospel where and when it pleases God” (Augsburg Confession, Article V). Until quite recently, however, this theology has not been clearly expressed liturgically. This presentation will focus on the recovery, various formulations, locations, and theology of a Spirit-epiclesis in modern Lutheran baptismal and eucharistic liturgies.

 

Ruth Langer, Boston College: The Presence of God in Jewish Liturgy.

 

In rabbinic tradition, God’s manifestation as Holy Spirit is a source of prophecy, not a participant in worship. That role applies better to the indwelling presence of God, the Shekhinah, or to God as present in the Jerusalem Temple, Hamaqom. The destruction of the Temple challenged both of these immanent aspects of God’s interaction with humanity. This paper explores the rabbinic understandings that God’s immanent presence continues in liturgical situations, both on the Temple Mount, in the gathered community, and in its place of gathering.

Simon Jones, Merton College, Oxford: Wombs of the Spirit: Incarnational pneumatology in the Syrian baptismal tradition.

This paper identifies the incarnational image of the womb as the principal symbolic focus for the activity of the Holy Spirit in the Syrian baptismal tradition and traces its use from the Odes of Solomon to the formation of the baptismal ordines.

Habte Kidane, Ethiopia: The Holy Spirit in the Ethiopian Orthodox Worship Tradition.

 

This paper deals with the “Holy Spirit in Ethiopian Orthodox Täwaüdo Church” (EOTC). This short study which delineates only the essentials, depends heavily on the huge liturgical literary of the same Church. In short this article offers a comprehensive view and a more fundamental on the Holy Spirit in the EOTC. To understand the place of the Holy Spirit in the EOTC’s liturgy is necessary to have a global vision of the liturgical literature of the same Church.

The literature on the Holy Spirit is rich, it can be said that there is a quite limited number of studies on this field. The liturgical literature can be divided into two groups: of indigenous production and of outside provenance, mainly from Egypt or through the Egyptian channel. The author tries to bring together, and to integrate into a coherent whole, all the major aspect that enhances the active role of the Holy Spirit in whole the EOTC’s liturgical life (Qeddase or Divine Liturgy, the Liturgy of the Hours and in the Sacramental life). Literature: This short study is an invitation to the scholars of the EOTC’s Liturgical tradition. The main sources are the following: 1. Ser?ata Qeddase (the first part of the Mass), 2. Akwätetä Qwerban (the anaphoras), 3. Deggwa: hymnary for the whole year (the Liturgy of the Hours), 4. the Sacraments, 6. Mälk?a Paraqliýos (effigy of the Holy Spirit), composed of five strophes, that praise the various parts of the body.

James Steven, Bristol UK: The Spirit in Charismatic Worship.

In the last quarter of the 20th Century the worship of many of the historic denominations has been influenced by the charismatic movement. After giving a brief review of the impact of the movement upon patterns of public worship the main aim of this paper is to explore how the Spirit is understood to be encountered in charismatic assembly. Special attention is paid to the ritual patterning of such encounters in the worshipping assembly where the primary function of the Spirit has become that of mediating God’s presence and power. By drawing upon theological, historical and cultural perspectives the paper concludes by offering an evaluation of this contemporary version of ‘worship in the Spirit’.

Darlene Zschech, Hillsong, Australia: The Spirit in Worship and the Making of Music in the Hillsong Churches.

 

With true worship being the response of the created, or humanity’s response to encountering the Devine, the Creator… Father, Son and Holy Spirit, then I would be foolish to declare anything other than the worshipping heart does bring a Spirit given response to the God of all. There is no human substitute for a life changed by grace, and then that same life given as a thankyou offering as described in Romans 12 – a life poured out as a spiritual act of worship.

We will look at 1 Cor 12 which says that no man can say wholeheartedly that Jesus is Lord, but by the Spirit of God… and if you look further into scriptures such as Amos 5, God has never been interested in worship that is not wholehearted, for presenting an offering that simply looks good, but is inherently decayed at its core.. God actually says sternly to get away with that noise..’bring me worship that results in changed lives’. Without the power of the Holy Spirit at work, truthful worship cannot permeate the fabric of the human condition.

I find it interesting that John 4, when Jesus sits with the infamous woman at the well, He starts to speak to her about living water, and also states clearly that God is Spirit, and those who worship Him MUST do so in Spirit and in Truth… Fuelled by revelation, and sustained by relationship. Not fuelled by church attendance and sustained by what you do for a living… Yes, the grand idea about worship is that it invites every man, woman and child, every nation, tribe and tongue to come together and join the heavenly anthem, in these lives of worship..WORTHSHIP.. for He alone is worthy of all honour, glory and praise. We will always fall short in the natural of bringing continual pure worship, but with the continuous help and presence of the Holy Spirit, we stand forgiven, whole and hungry to know Him more.